Diabetes

 
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wHAT IS DIABETES?

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by persistent high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) which is caused by either insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. Diabetes is generally classified as Type 1 diabetes or Type 2 diabetes.

In Type 1 diabetes, insulin-producing β cells of the islets of Langerhans within the pancreas fail to function correctly as a consequence of an autoimmune T-cell-mediated mechanism and which results in insufficient insulin production. 

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T1DM affects 10-15% of allpeople with diabetes. mediated mechanism and which results in insufficient insulin production. T1DM affects 10-15% of all people with diabetes. 

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and is characterized by resistance to insulin combined with a failure to produce sufficient insulin.  Type 2 diabetes affects 85-90% of all people with the disease and is commonly linked to obesity, which can cause insulin resistance.

It is estimated that more than 387 million people worldwide are affected by diabetes and the numbers are predicted to rise to epidemic levels. 


Complications of diabetes

Although the pathogenesis of T1DM and T2DM are different, they share the same symptoms of hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia leads to altered glucose, fat and protein metabolism, which in turn alters the microenvironment in different tissues and cells resulting in long-term effects that are referred to as ‘‘diabetic complications’.

Diabetic complications affect multiple parts of the body and >10% of the NHS budget in the UK is spent on treating patients. Complications of diabetes include Many of the complications develop over a long period of time i.e are chronic conditions. Diabetic complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality.

Patients with diabetes are at increased risk complications which affect many major organs including kidneys (nephropathy),  eyes (retinopathy), heart (diabetic cardiomyopathy), blood vessel (peripheral vascular disease), peripheral nerves (neuropathy), brain (Alzheimer's disease), and others. The multi-organ impact of diabetes complications resembles a mitochondrial genetic disease and suggests a systemic dysfunction in the body. 

 

 
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Diabetic Kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy)

More than 100 million people worldwide are at risk of diabetic nephropathy (DN), a major cause of end-stage renal failure, as well as increased risk of numerous other complications which affect many major organs including eyes (retinopathy), heart (diabetic cardiomyopathy), blood vessel (peripheral vascular disease), brain (dementia), and others. The multi-organ impact of diabetes complications resembles a mitochondrial genetic disease and suggests a systemic dysfunction in the body.